Does the Landlord and Tenant Act 1954 need modernising?

A firm of solicitors has looked at the 1954 Act, questioning whether it needs reviewing.

Their findings can be seen here, and in summary:

The Landlord and Tenant Act 1954 (the “Act”) provides security of tenure for business tenants, allowing them to renew their leases on similar terms at market rent upon expiration. This security is designed to protect tenants from excessive rent increases and from being evicted unfairly by opportunistic landlords, particularly in a weak commercial property market.

Key Points of the Act:

1. Security of Tenure:
– Tenants with leases “inside the Act” can renew their lease on the same or similar terms, subject to market rent adjustments.
– Tenants with leases “contracted out” of the Act do not have this protection.

2. Renewal Conditions:
– For a tenant to renew the lease, the property must be used for business purposes at the end of the contractual term.
– The tenant must meet the business occupation criteria as defined by the Act.

Case Example: Royal Borough of Kensington & Chelsea v Mellcraft Ltd (2024)

This case provides insight into the application of the Act in modern contexts:

– Background:
– The Royal Borough of Kensington & Chelsea granted Mellcraft Ltd a five-year lease for a flat, used both for residential and business purposes by Mellcraft’s director and his family.
– Mellcraft sought to renew the lease under the Act, claiming business occupation.

– Court’s Decision:
– The court confirmed that Mellcraft occupied the flat for business purposes, thus qualifying for lease renewal under the Act.
– The Council’s attempt to oppose the renewal based on their intent to use the property to house the homeless (considered a business purpose) failed because they planned to grant a tenancy to a third party rather than occupy it themselves.

Modernization Debate

The Act, being over 70 years old, is increasingly seen as outdated. Recent cases, such as Mellcraft and Sainsbury’s Supermarkets Ltd vs. Medley Assets (2024), have highlighted the Act’s limitations and strengths, sparking debate on its relevance today.

Law Commission Review

The Law Commission is reviewing the Act, aiming to modernize it to reflect current business practices and property landscapes. The review focuses on simplifying the legal framework to balance the interests of both landlords and tenants effectively. This review, expected in Autumn 2024, could lead to significant legislative changes, particularly regarding what constitutes business occupation.

Implications for the Future

The ongoing debate and the Law Commission’s review suggest that reforms are likely, which may:

– Clarify and possibly redefine business occupation criteria.
– Adjust the balance of protections between landlords and tenants to better reflect contemporary commercial realities.
– Simplify procedures and terms to make the Act more user-friendly and applicable to modern business practices.


While the Act has provided significant protections for business tenants, its effectiveness in the current commercial environment is under scrutiny. The Law Commission’s review will be critical in determining whether and how the Act will be updated to address modern needs and challenges in the property and real estate market.

– [GOV.UK: Landlord and Tenant Act 1954]
– [Law Commission: Review of the Landlord and Tenant Act 1954]



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